September- Hannibal defeated the Gaul Volcae tribe in the Battle of Rhone Crossing. It began in 218 B.C., and continued through 201 B.C. Hannibal established his reputation for near invincibility when he won a battle at the Ticinus (Ticino) river near Pavia and again at the Trebia River in December 218 BCE. Still, a lot was happening in the Carthage backyard, i.e. The Second Punic War was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. The Romans also took possession of southern Spain. The result of this spectacular campaign was that most of the city-states of southern Italy defected to the Carthaginian cause, including Italy’s second most important city, Capua. The Third Punic War (149 – 146 BC) was the last in the trilogy of conflicts between Rome and Carthage. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? The North African Berber kingdom of Numidia (202-40 BCE) was originally... Hannibal Barca (l. 247-183 BCE), the brilliant Carthaginian general... Carthaginian commander Mago is unable to join forces with. Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. The Second Punic War was underway. He had lost his power over Mediterranean Sea; losing Sicily and the compensation imposed on him by Rome greatly affected his economy. 50,000 of the enemy were killed compared to 5,700 on Carthaginian side, most of those being Gauls. 1. The second Punic War lasted 218-201 B.C.for 17 years. Carthage would briefly rise again for a Third Punic War 50 years later but its position as a great Mediterranean power was now lost forever. Hasdrubal the Fair took over from Hamilcar Barca following his death by drowning in 229 BCE and added another 10,000 infantry to his force and 8,000 cavalry, while his war elephants also doubled to 200. Spain, the original flashpoint of the war, was now cleared of Carthaginian forces. When Scipio attacked Utica, the city proved more resilient than expected, and Carthage, meanwhile, assembled an army under Gisgo, son of Hasdrubal. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, and it was he who attacked Carthage on home soil, beating Hannibal and delivering final victory. This was the so-called ‘Fabian policy’ after Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, the dictator of 217 BCE, who earned the nickname ‘Cunctator’ (Delayer). Another victory came near Lake Trasimene in June 217 BCE where 15,000 Romans were killed and 10,000 captured. A Roman army was then defeated in Gaul in 216 BCE, but their fortunes slowly began to improve. https://www.ancient.eu/Second_Punic_War/. They were never really helpful militarily to the Carthaginians. Macedon too was brought into the war. • the war left Rome in control - for the first time - of Cisapline Gaul, Sicily, Sardinia and Spain (which they decided to keep) - i.e. These commanders were Sempronius, at the Trebbia River, Flaminius, at Lake Trasimene, Paullus, at Cannae, and Scipio, at Zama. The Punic Wars were arguably the most significant armed struggle in all of antiquity. Almost inevitably, Mago was unable to join forces with Hannibal and his army was defeated in Cisalpine Gaul in 203 BCE. Before Carthage could think about Rome, it first had to deal with the continued unrest closer to home. The expedition was not without cost. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 29 May 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians … Image Credit: shorthistory One of the biggest event of this war was Hannibal Barca’s supreme riseand subsequent defeat. 20,000 Carthaginians had fallen while Rome suffered fewer than 5,000 fatalities. The two sides did not clash, rather, each established a camp to see out the winter. These defeats now put the city of Carthage itself in danger and necessitated the return of Hannibal from Italy to defend the homeland. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. This may have been because he lacked outside support but also because it was probably never his intention to annihilate Rome. Copyright © University of the People 2018. Before the Second Punic War slaves were employed on a relatively small scale. The outbreak of the Second Punic War began when Hannibal moved north across Ebro to begin his historic march over the Alps. Spain, which definitely had a great impact on the final outcome of the war. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, an… The Mercenary War (240-237 BC) Carthage had to pay its mercenary soldiers after the First Punic War, even though Carthage lost the war to Rome. Tribute in money if not men was extracted from local cities and new silver mines were worked. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War Hannibal along with a massive, 3 out of 4 people found this document helpful. Hannibal surprised them by deciding to invade Italy. All rights reserved. Both Syracuse and Tarentum defected to Carthage in 214 and 212 BCE respectively, but Hannibal was being left without support in Italy. The raids were hugely successful and devastated the enemy. Most of the leadership in Cartha… The Romans had never been a naval power, and needed to build a massive fleet. Hannibal had defeated several large Roman armies, but Rome itself, as in the First Punic War, seemed immune to the losses. In the summer of 202 BCE, the war was very much back on again and the two sides would clash in one final decisive battle. Soon Rome had the largest fleet in the Mediterranean. Saguntum was retaken but both Roman commanders, P. Cornelius Scipio and Gn. University of the People is a 501(c)(3) not for profit organization. The First Punic War had been tremendously costly to both sides but Rome’s seemingly inexhaustible resources, especially its capacity to renew large naval fleets meant that, ultimately, Carthage could not compete with the Mediterranean’s newest superpower. 12 Dec 2020. Sawed Salt in the soil, no nothing would would ever grow there again ... What's the effects of LATIFUNDIA. Hannibal, along with a massive army and the inclusion of elephants, fought a battle against the Roman army at Ticinus, Trebia and Trasimene. Second Punic War. In typical fashion, the Carthaginian general used the terrain to his advantage, this time putting his 50,000 troops close to the River Aufidus; he constrained the eight legions of the enemy to do likewise and thus restricted their possibility of manoeuvre and gain advantage from their greater numbers. Without a significant fleet and having lost their strategically important fortresses in Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia, the Carthaginians had to look elsewhere for a source of money to fund their armies. While the first two wars were among the largest ever fought at the time and took place all over Europe and North Africa, most of the Third Punic War took place in and around Tunisia. Carthage sent an army to Liguria in northern Italy in 205 BCE. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. The Second Punic War After their defeat in the first Punic War, Carthage regrouped and poised for another attack. ... Second Punic War begins. Scipio preferred to focus on Spain and won another victory, again against a more numerous opponent, at Ilipa in 206 BCE. Hannibal expected Rome to attack his position in Spain and, indeed, a Roman army was sent there with 60 quinqueremes under the command of P. Cornelius Scipio while another one sailed for Sicily. The Carthaginian general was faced with the problem that he simply did not have the manpower to keep control of all his newly acquired territory. Causes of the Second Punic War The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean.” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. In 215 BCE Rome attacked southern Spain, dramatically defeating Hasdrubal at the battle of Ibera in 215 BCE. The theatres of war in Spain, Sicily, and Italy were now almost played out and attention turned to Africa. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘Mercenary War’ and there was a strong pro-peace party in the city. Battle of Lilybaeum – A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of 35 galleys. Luckily, the Romans captured a Carthaginian ship and copied their design. At the beginning of the war both sides had been roughly equal in fighting forces on land. Territories During the Second Punic Warby Javierfv1212 (CC BY-SA). Ancient History Encyclopedia. ...The Punic Wars were 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage that lasted from 264 to 146 B.C. Hannibal destroys the Roman army at Cannae in the most severe defeat ever suffered by Rome. In the Second Punic War, to neutralise Carthage and gain dominanace of the Western Mediterranean. Meanwhile, the war was widening. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. The War with Hannibal: The History of Rome from Its Foundation, Books... Hannibal’s War: A Military History of the Second Punic War. Under Philip V, the Macedonians proved no match for the Roman general Marcus Valerius Laevinus, and Macedon was forced out of the Adriatic and into a war with the Aetolian Confederacy in north-west Greece. With reinforcements coming from an army led by Hasdrubal, the Carthaginians and their Numidian allies managed to muster another army of 30,000 infantry. Consequences Of The Second Punic War. The battle is referred to as ‘the battle of Zama’ because that town was on Hannibal’s route to the battlefield. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Carthage made overtures for peace in 203 BCE, perhaps only to allow Hannibal time to come back home as indicated by their treatment of a Roman transport fleet blown off course in 202 BCE. They were then herded back in the direction of the Carthaginians to cause havoc there. Remember to cite your sources. Hannibal’s father had made his son swear never to be a friend of Rome, and with this solid platform of wealth and arms, he did not disappoint for the commander, still only 26, would become Rome’s greatest ever foe. Scipio’s cavalry wings crushed the enemy and the African infantry collapsed. Cite This Work Expert Answer . Hannibal once again released Italian prisoners but dealt harshly with Roman captives to emphasise he was at war with only the latter and local communities were welcome to join him. It lasted between 218 and 201 BC. Battle of Mylae. The strategy of Fabius, although interrupted occasionally by zealous commanders eager for glory in their one year of office as consul, was slowly working and, relentlessly, the Romans backed Hannibal into an ever-smaller pocket so that by 207 BCE he controlled only Bruttium. The Second Punic War or the Hannibalic War lasted sixteen years from 218 BC to 202 BC and was fought between the two major powers of Rome and Carthage. Carthaginian War Elephantsby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). Carthage sent an army of 23,000 to the island in 213 BCE but could not prevent the city falling into the hands of Marcus Claudius Marcellus, a veteran of the First Punic War, in 212 BCE. After seventeen years of war with great loss of lives from both sides, Carthage was defeated by Rome view the full answer Battle of Cannae 216 BC. Carthage had lost the First Punic War (264-241 BCE) and control of Sicily, then again it had been defeated in the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) and so lost its Spanish empire, its fleet, and independence of military action. The answer was Spain. The Second Punic War is known as Hannibal’s War or against Hannibal. August – Hannibal conquered Catalonia. Discuss the differences between the governments and militaries of Rome and Carthage that account for, Discussion Forum unit 5.docx HIST 1421.docx, University of the People • ART HIST HIST 1421, Discussion forum unit 5 06-Mars-2019 -final.docx, Copyright © 2020. However, all the Latin colonies and central Italy remained loyal to Rome and this meant that Hannibal’s new acquisitions had to be constantly defended. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. The first Punic War was fought over the control of Sicily and the Western Mediterranean. This force consisted of 30,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry, and Gisgo was almost immediately joined by the Numidian Syphax with his army of 50,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? Following the terms of surrender in 241 BCE, Carthage, having lost the longest war in ancient history up to that point, agreed to withdraw from Sicily and pay reparations to Rome of 3,200 talents. The first Punic War lasted from 264-241 B.C. Rome entered the Second Punic War as the dominant city in Italy..., yet emerged as a world power'. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 May 2016. Accordingly, Hamilcar Barca was despatched in 237 BCE to expand Carthaginian territory, which he did, establishing his base at Gades (Cadiz) and founding a new city of Acra Leuce. The clock was ticking and Rome had time on their side. The war began in 264 B.C.E. In the Second Punic War, various Roman commanders faced Hannibal, leader of the forces of Carthaginians, their allies, and mercenaries.Four major Roman commanders made a name for themselves in the following main battles of the second Punic War. For Carthage it would be the very last throw of the dice. Scipio Africanus the Elderby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). These were supplemented with sympathetic Gauls from northern Italy and the Carthaginian pressed on regardless. Hannibal had employed his customary tactics of high mobility in the field too and enveloped the enemy while his cavalry attacked the rear. They had long since had control of the old Phoenician colonies there, and it had already proven a rich source of silver. By now Carthage controlled half of the Iberian Peninsula. And, in the final battle at Zama, Scipio had shown what could be achieved by adapting standard tactics to defeat specific enemies. The Second Punic War. This preview shows page 33 - 34 out of 34 pages. The Start of the Second Punic War 218 BC. "Second Punic War." Then in 221 BCE a new face arrived on the scene: Hannibal, eldest son of Hamilcar Barca. The final outcome of the Second Punic War was the defeat of Hannibal and the conquest of Carthage. After three bad losses worse was to follow for Rome in August 216 BCE when Hannibal, moving into southern Italy, won a great victory against a much larger opposing army (80,000 men) at Cannae in Apulia (modern Puglia) in the heel of the Italian peninsula. The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean. He invaded ever deeper inland and then besieged and conquered Saguntum (modern Sagunto, just north of Valencia), a long-time ally of Rome, in 219 BCE. Rome was reeling but Hannibal was on his own, and he fatefully decided not to attack Rome itself. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Rise and Fall of Hannibal. But what were the results of the wars? Rome might have feared a land battle but they were still masters of the seas, and this meant that Hannibal could not be resupplied. Scipio immediately defeated a contingent of 500 Carthaginian cavalry and then had his army boosted by the arrival of Masinissa’s Numidian cavalry. The Second Punic War brought about the downfall of the established balance of power of the ancient world and Rome rose to become the supreme power in the Mediterranean region for the coming 600 years. Campaigns of the Second Punic Warby YassineMrabet (GNU FDL). Carthaginian territory was then turned into the province of Africa by the Roman. Rome had a far superior navy, but Carthage had the best commander in Hannibal. The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was the rise of Hannibal … While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. Syphax would later defect to the Carthaginians, and the Roman Senate was initially against an invasion, but eventually Scipio got his backing and was ready to strike at the soft underbelly of the Carthaginian held territories in Africa, just as Hannibal was doing in southern Italy. Hannibal’s mix of Italian veterans and new recruits numbered some 45,000 men and included 2,000 Numidian cavalry from their ally Tychaeus. At the same time in Italy, Hannibal was still holding out despite facing armies twice the size of his own force. The Second Punic War was lost and Hannibal sued for peace terms. Cartwright, Mark. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. The Iberians now gave up the Carthaginian cause and Rome had access to the enemy’s silver mines to boost its war effort. The First Punic War had shown that Rome could not be defeated from the outside, but perhaps fighting in its own territory and stirring up rebellions, it might be defeated from within. The 25-year old general sailed from Ostia and quickly made his mark on the war by a shock capture of the main Carthaginian supply base and treasury in Spain, Carthago Nova (modern Cartagena) in 209 BCE. Carthage declined and Rome declared war in March 218 BCE. A similar sized army was sent in an unsuccessful attempt to take Sardinia back for Carthage. An army of 13,500 men and corps of elephants were redirected by Carthage to Spain instead of Hannibal in Italy. 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