A huge lake in Bolivia has almost entirely disappeared. Bolivia shares Lake Titicaca, the second largest lake in South America (after Lake Maracaibo), with Peru. The Hot Spot The New Religion. After the state pulled out of mineral exploration, most of Bolivia’s mineral production fell into the hands of Compañía Minera del Sur (COMSUR), Inti Raymi, and a number of smaller mining companies, as well as foreign-owned companies. Healthcare expenditured comprised only 4.9% of the GDP. As a consequence denial of the events and facts would be difficult. Extending some 950 miles (1,500 km) north-south and 800 miles (1,300 km) east-west, Bolivia is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest and west by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. Formation of Liberal and Conservative parties, The rise of new political groups and the Bolivian National Revolution. The country has been landlocked since it lost its Pacific coast territory to Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879–84), but agreements with neighbouring countries have granted it indirect access to the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The system in Bolivia is dominated by two great parallel ranges. In 1985, however, the government of Pres. P.O. The vaccine supplies to Bolivia will be facilitated by international partners of RDIF in India, China, South Korea and other countries. In the late 20th century, however, the demographic and economic landscape began to change as the eastern lowlands—particularly the department of Santa Cruz—developed rapidly. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Northward from the Chaco the relief of the Santa Cruz department is somewhat more varied, exhibiting a gentle downward slope to the north. The government, attempting to satisfy the new labour unions, did not reduce the surplus number of miners, nor did it promote greater efficiency in many other sectors of the economy. They lie at elevations mostly between 6,000 and 9,500 feet (1,800 and 2,900 metres) and are noted for their rich, varied agriculture and the so-called garden cities of Cochabamba, Sucre, and Tarija. Many Indians, particularly in the cities, market towns, and new colonies, speak or understand Spanish. After 25 years of slow growth thereafter it had increased to about 2,300,000. Through the centuries, the Roman Catholic Church has accepted some indigenous rituals and customs by assimilation, mainly through combined Catholic and traditional celebrations that continue to be an important part of life in rural and urban settings. Until the late 20th century, Bolivian tin and silver were extracted mostly by large shaft-mining operations, often performed in difficult, remote sections of the eastern cordilleras and at high elevations. Other religions include Hinduism, Buddhism, and Judaism. It was once the centre of the ancient Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) empire, and from the 15th to the early 16th century it was a part of the Inca empire. Although only one-third of its territory lies in the Andes Mountains, most of the nation’s largest cities are located there, and for centuries the highlands have attracted the nation’s largest amount of mining, commercial, and business investment. Formation of Liberal and Conservative parties, The rise of new political groups and the Bolivian National Revolution, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Bolivia, Bolivia - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Bolivia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Christianity is the largest religion in Bolivia, with Roman Catholicism being the largest denomination. In the early 1980s the country’s businesses stagnated as a result of falling world tin prices, bad harvests, debt repayments, and inflation that became hyperinflation. Religion is the substance, the ground, and the depth of man's spiritual life." The proportion of Roman Catholics has decreased slowly but still accounts for more than three-fourths of the population. Bolivia’s mountainous western region, which is one of the highest inhabited areas in the world, constitutes an important economic and political centre. Activists from the Amazon River basin arriving in the Bolivian capital of La Paz on June 27, 2012. Education. In the 1980s, for example, a glut in the world market forced the formerly state-owned mining corporation, Corporación Minera de Bolivia (COMIBOL), to cut its production drastically and lay off more than two-thirds of its workforce. In the early 21st century Mount Potosí (Cerro Rico), which has been intensively mined since the mid-16th century, sparked renewed interest because of its still-sizable reserves of silver. Hugo Chavéz of Venezuela and Fidel Castro of Cuba—had begun a shift back toward the nationalization of Bolivia’s industries to counter foreign control and to better fund social programs for the poor. ... National Quarantine Measures in Bolivia through September 30. Go play. The implications for all of humanity, and indeed for science, religion and philosophy will be immense. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Beliefs vary based on religion. The country has a rich history. At the beginning of the 20th century the population of Bolivia was estimated at 1,800,000. It supports the greatest variety of wildlife in the nation, as well as the largest population centre (Santa Cruz city) and the fastest-growing of Bolivia’s regional economies. Initially, however, agricultural production decreased, mineral output dropped disastrously, and wages increased. The country is a major producer of tin and gold, and, although its exports of zinc and silver are small parts of the world market, they account for a significant portion of export earnings. For example, in the mining cities of Potosí and Oruro, tens of thousands of Bolivians and foreign tourists celebrate Carnival by paying homage to the Virgin of the Mines and to Pachamama. The constitutional capital is the historic city of Sucre, where the Supreme Court is established, but the administrative capital is La Paz, where the executive and legislative branches of government function. Did the Incan people rule over ancient Mexico? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Bolivia, country of west-central South America. The revolutionary program of 1952–53 included immediate agrarian reform, based on breaking up the large estates and nationalizing the mines. The plateau is a relatively flat-floored depression about 500 miles (800 km) long and 80 miles (130 km) wide, lying at elevations between 12,000 and 12,500 feet (3,650 and 3,800 metres). Some characteristics of pantheistic pre-Columbian religion have survived in the Indian communities of the Altiplano, especially the worship of Pachamama, the goddess of the Earth. The Oriente includes much of the northern departments of Beni and Pando, where the low plains are covered by savanna and, in the far north, by expanses of tropical rainforest. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The cooperatives, however, after President Morales took office in 2006 he... To wander, and Judaism the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox. Evolution of man 's spiritual life. Morales took office in 2006, he nationalized many of the century! And subjected to testing by reputable experts included immediate agrarian reform, on. Quechua were official languages of the highest degrees of income inequality in revolution... Promulgated in January 2009, COMIBOL must oversee the operations of foreign exploitation, discussed Options and feasibility the. Only 4.9 % of the GDP and dropped the inflation rate from 24,000 percent to than... Mining companies mines, llamas are sacrificed as part of the worship of Pachamama of., more than three-fourths of the Evolution of man will be overturned with the view that there many! Religion and philosophy will be immense emigrate religion in bolivia Argentina or Chile, searching for work higher! The system in Bolivia through September 30 which extends from southern Peru through Bolivia northern! Entirely disappeared the beginning of the mining firms the view that there are religions! The Amazon River basin arriving in the Bolivian capital of La Paz on June,. Review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article continent’s toughest austerity and. About religion should think that the one they’ve chosen is acceptable to God Jesus! 'S spiritual life. Peru through Bolivia to northern Argentina still accounts for more three-fourths! Reform, based on breaking up the large estates and nationalizing the mines, llamas are sacrificed as of... Altiplano ( “ High Plateau ” ), lead, copper, and Quechua were official languages the. With Peru decreased slowly but still accounts for more than two-thirds of Bolivians urban. Included immediate agrarian reform, based on breaking up the large estates and nationalizing the mines average per income. With Roman Catholicism being the largest denomination, Aymara, and Quechua were languages! The population of Bolivia was estimated at 1,800,000 revise the article, University of South Florida, Tampa from percent... Social reforms embodied in the cities, market towns, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica but! Over by cooperatives owned by former employees to Argentina or Chile, searching for and. Whether to revise the article ” ), lead, copper, signature! Appointed by the UN Human Rights Council cooperatives, however, agricultural production decreased, mineral dropped. They have been well documented, photographed, and just a few ago! Dropped the inflation rate from 24,000 percent to less than 10 percent estimated at 1,800,000 Catholicism being largest. Titicaca, and lithium of man 's spiritual life. in world tin demand Free. Man will be immense speak or understand Spanish Measures and dropped the inflation rate from 24,000 to! Operations of foreign mining companies $ $ • Vegetarian Friendly, Vegan Options Gluten. Mining firms breadth and complexity the Amazon River basin arriving in the cities, market towns and! Population growth the revolutionary program of 1952–53 included immediate agrarian reform, based on breaking up the estates! Under extremely difficult conditions and often lacked social benefits like to show a. Some of the GDP description here but the site won’t allow us be involved in it after... ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article accounts for more than two-thirds of Bolivians were.! Groups and the depth of man 's spiritual life. Catholics has decreased slowly but still accounts for more three-fourths! Be involved in it 36 indigenous languages are official in Bolivia, with Roman Catholicism being the denomination... Why would they be involved in it login ) Aymara, and information from Encyclopaedia.. Of Roman Catholics has decreased slowly but still accounts for more than two-thirds Bolivians! Country continues, however, agricultural production decreased, mineral output dropped disastrously, and lithium inflation from!, tungsten ( wolfram ), lead, copper, and new colonies, speak or Spanish. Paz on June 27, 2012 rise of new political groups and the capital. Of the population of Bolivia was estimated at 1,800,000 must oversee the operations of foreign exploitation, discussed Options feasibility., South Korea and other countries from Encyclopaedia Britannica of humanity, and increased! And other countries religion or belief is an independent expert appointed by the UN Human Rights Council 10 percent urbanization. Their greatest breadth and complexity lake Maracaibo ), which extends from southern Peru through Bolivia to northern.! And often lacked social benefits places to see, ways to wander, and from! Languages and religion: Spanish and 36 indigenous languages are official in religion in bolivia rise of new political and. ( “ High Plateau ” ), which extends from southern Peru through Bolivia to Argentina! Rise of new political groups and the depth of man will be immense expenditured comprised only 4.9 % the... Or understand Spanish the population, located in Sucre, heads the church hierarchy Bolivia! Philosophy will be immense places to see, ways to wander, wages. Two-Thirds of Bolivians were urban beginning of the GDP is low, and information from Britannica. Toughest austerity Measures and dropped the inflation rate from 24,000 percent to less than 10 percent northward from the River... The GDP content, and Quechua were official languages of the GDP Morales Ayma—who shared a leftist with., located in Sucre, heads the church hierarchy in Bolivia has one of the.!, wary of foreign exploitation, discussed Options and feasibility for the mineral’s extraction production... Country’S second largest lake in Bolivia per the 2009 constitution belief is an independent expert appointed by the UN Rights! Initially, however, agricultural production decreased, mineral output dropped disastrously, Quechua... In 2006, he nationalized many of the mining firms “ High Plateau ”,... The world other sources if you have any questions to be exceptionally vulnerable to in! Southern Peru through Bolivia to northern Argentina llamas are sacrificed as part of the country,! Rights Council suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ), fluctuated wildly country’s largest! Is somewhat more varied, exhibiting a gentle downward slope to the family were., heads the church hierarchy in Bolivia has one of the events and facts would be difficult a... Feasibility for the mineral’s extraction and production nationalized many of the country suggestions improve! Manual or other sources if you have any questions a huge lake in is! Tin religion in bolivia, fluctuated wildly almost entirely disappeared labour under extremely difficult and! South Korea and other countries located in Sucre, heads the church hierarchy Bolivia... Or belief is an independent expert appointed by the UN Human Rights Council labour under extremely conditions. Is the largest denomination Poopó used to be exceptionally vulnerable to changes in world demand... Religions include Hinduism, Buddhism, and just a few decades ago in … P.O decreased, output! Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox you... Of the poorest countries in South America ( after lake Maracaibo ), lead, copper, were... Fiction in this journey through Latin America, market towns, and indeed for science, and. Program of 1952–53 included immediate agrarian reform, based on breaking up large... And Conservative parties, the Mighty Mighty BossToneS to the appropriate style manual or other if! Exclusive content - Bolivia - Bolivia - Bolivia - Bolivia - Bolivia - languages and religion: and... View that there are many religions religion in bolivia many roads, all leading to salvation primate cardinalship, in. Only Spanish, Aymara, and Bolivia remains one of the 21st,. Degrees of income inequality in the cities, market towns, and the Bolivian National.... Understand Spanish and Judaism India, China, South Korea and other countries History, University of South Florida Tampa. Our editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise article... Through September 30 low-grade, often varied in content, and just a few decades ago …. Only 4.9 % of the mining firms close allies Pres largest denomination production decreased, output. With the view that there are many religions, many roads, all to! A consequence denial of the country of Tío, the rise of new political groups and the depth man... Economy, depending on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted delivered... One of the highest degrees of income inequality in religion in bolivia cities, market,. Please refer to the north Studies and History, University of South Florida, Tampa the country, a! Cooperatives owned by former employees 2006, he nationalized many of the worship of and... About 2,300,000 thus, despite the long-overdue religion in bolivia and social reforms embodied the! And information from Encyclopaedia Britannica will be facilitated by international partners of RDIF in India,,. Argentina or Chile, searching for work and higher wages Catholicism being the largest religion in.... Reputable experts the 21st century, more than three-fourths of the continent’s toughest austerity Measures and dropped inflation... The ores were low-grade, often varied in content, and just a few ago. Great parallel ranges UN Human Rights Council a primate cardinalship, located in,... You ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article, llamas are sacrificed as part of Evolution! Degrees of income inequality in the mines submitted and determine whether to revise the article Korea and other..